2016 Fiscal New Year – Sales Tax Change on July 1.

46 states start their fiscal year on July 1. With that comes a whole new set of sales tax laws to follow.

What do you need to know about the big changes taking effect and the proposed changes that could impact your business if and when they’re enacted as law

The following is by no means exhaustive, but highlights the biggest trends in these areas:

• Marketplace Fairness Act (MFA) or “internet sales tax”

• Nexus laws at the state level • Local sales and use tax rates

• Internet sales tax changes

• Sales tax holidays

• Fuel tax changes

• Other miscellaneous taxability news and events

2016 nexus laws at the state level While Congress debates over the MFA and other proposed legislation, state governments are focusing on nexus rules that will impact many remote sellers. MultiState Insider highlights many of the states that have changed their nexus rules in 2016.


Allows remote sellers to continue participating in the Simplified Seller Remittance Program even if they establish physical nexus within the state or if the federal government removes current sales tax limitations.


Shell bill titled “Creates the Marketplace Fairness Act.”


Requires the state to inform individuals of their obligation to remit the sales tax on remote purchases.


» Presumes sales tax nexus if a seller uses an in-state affiliate to advertise, promote, facilitate or refer sales or to facilitate the delivery of sales.

» Requires remote sellers to provide notice to instate purchasers that the Louisiana sales tax may be due at the time of purchase..


» Authorizes state taxing authorities to collect sales tax from remote sellers and reduce the sales tax rate to 5.75 percent.

» Authorizes state taxing authorities to collect sales tax from remote sellers in anticipation of federal action on this subject.

» Changes the definition of “engaged in business in the commonwealth” to include having an in-state intermediary perform certain services on the vendor’s behalf, including: regularly soliciting sales within the state, maintaining storage or distribution facilities, or facilitating the deliver or repair of sold property.

» Authorizes state taxing authorities to collect sales tax from remote sellers in anticipation of federal action on this subject.


Revises the definition of “retailer,” “retail sale,” and “doing business” for the purposes of the sales tax.


Presumes sales tax nexus either if any one of several criteria are met, including: a seller using an in-state affiliate to facilitate their operations, utilizing an in-state marketplace provider, or having cumulative sales into the state in excess of $10,000 in the previous year.


Presumes sales tax nexus if a seller utilizes an in-state affiliate to advertise, promote, facilitate or refer sales or to facilitate the delivery of sales.


Presumes sales tax nexus if a seller utilizes an in-state affiliate to advertise, promote, facilitate or refer sales or to facilitate the delivery of sales. Specifically requires all remotes sellers to collect and remit the state sales tax if they have in-state gross annual receipts in the state in excess of $1 million.

Rhode Island

» Changes the definition of “retailer” to specify that referring customers to a retailer only through a link on a website does not constitute nexus for purposes of the sales tax.

» Presumes sales tax nexus either if any one of several criteria are met, including: a seller using an in-state affiliate to facilitate their operations, utilizing an in-state marketplace provider, or having cumulative sales into the state in excess of $10,000 in the previous year.

South Dakota

Stipulates that an out-of-state seller has nexus with the state for sales tax purposes if their gross revenue from sales into the state exceeds $100,000 in the previous year or if they engaged in 200 or more separate transactions.


» Presumes sales tax nexus if a seller utilizes an in-state affiliate to advertise, promote, facilitate or refer sales or to facilitate the delivery of sales.

» Requires the owner of every in-state selling platform to file an annual report with the state of each seller who uses the platform, but does not collect the sales tax.

» Creates a rebuttable presumption that a seller of goods or services has nexus if they have in-state affiliates who facilitate the delivery, installation, assembly, maintenance of their sales; if the affiliate shares management, business system, or employees with the seller; of if the affiliate and the seller share intercompany transactions.


» Repeals the nonresident sales and use tax exemption.

» Prohibits the state from considering the attendance at a single in-state trade convention per year sufficient to establish nexus with the state.

Source: MultiState Insider.

For more info and to view the source: https://www.multistate. com/insider/2016/02/sales-tax-nexus-legislation-is-already-a-hot-topic-in-state-legislatures-this-year/

Will 2016 finally be the year for Marketplace Fairness Act (MFA) or “internet sales tax”?

When news regarding “internet sales tax” broke in May 2013, many thought the issue would be decided by the end of that year: either the federal government would grant states the authority to tax sales made by certain remote sellers, or legislators would reject the idea and the case would be closed. Instead, 2013 closed with no action — MFA 2013 never saw the light of day in the House. 2014 came and went without any real action on the issue at the federal level.

Three new pieces of remote sales tax legislation were passed around Washington at the start of 2015 (Marketplace Fairness Act of 2015, Online Sales Simplification Act, Remote Transactions Parity Act), but they never went anywhere. In the absence of a federal solution to an issue that has been draining sales tax revenue from states, states are creating remote sales tax legislation of their own.

If federal legislators do not deal with this issue, the United States Supreme Court could take it on.


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183/183 – Neighborhood and Community Relations


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2016 in All it’s 366-day leap year Glory

As you know, in 2014 Brand Building Consulting launched the program Giving back to the Community – Sustainable Foods Waste Management. Mai Truong, CEO of Brand Building Consulting philosophy is engaging with others to make the communities where our children and people live and work a better place.  Brand Building Consulting involved in  Pro-Bono Food Donation services with Bakery – Fast Foods – Groceries Retailers in the Community to process Sustainable Food Waste Management with Food that is still in usable condition is donated to local food banks and Charities. The generous support of Business Owners in our Community of Beverly Hills 90210 helped tremendously for local hunger relief programs during the holidays and all year round. And of course, with the help of countless volunteers and the spirit of giving from partners of the Food Waste Management Program in our community.

Making difference together with Business Owners in our Community:

Today, July 1st is the EXACT Midpoint of the year. With 183 days passed and 183 days to go.

It’s not too late to make 2016 our best Memory of Abundance, Wealth, and Joy in our Community. In memory of 2016 with 183 days to go  , Brand Building Consulting plans to launch a new project calls “Neighborhood and Community Relations”.
The concept is first attracted to all Businesses – Professional Services – Individuals in our Community by the opportunity to give back. After a lifetime of business success, they have turned to using their skills and wisdom to provide others with effective and impact leadership development. Each participant in helping individuals, strengthening communities and helping businesses. A major new initiative supporting community engagement broadly, support other local businesses and we give back to the community and help others success.
You can use your Leadership experiences the intense highs and lows of having the ultimate responsibility to coaching to impact the lives of our participants both personally and professionally to others.  Especially, when you own or run a business, even the simplest decisions can have profound implications, all of that experience has placed you in a unique position to make a profound contribution to the lives of other businesses in the community.
Leadership isn’t about you but about helping others become successful and about removing the obstacles — excessive bureaucracy.
Our Participants bring a wealth and diversity of experience to the table and apply their knowledge to helping each other overcome challenges and seize opportunities. Each group is designed to help members help each other work on their most pressing business issues and improve their lives and help our participants learn how to affect positive change within their companies and improve their lives and the lives of their families and employees.

Dynamically promote your products – Facebook & Instagram give Retailers a new way to drive sales

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According to comsocre inc. report, Instagram is the ninth-most popular app and Facebook is the most popular app among U.S. Consumers. By extending dynamic ads to Instagram, advertisers can promote relevant products to shoppers who have browsed their website or mobile app across two platforms where they spend much of their time.

In the US, for example, people are spending the majority (54%) of their time on mobile in mobile apps. Sixty percent of people on Instagram say they discover new products on the platform, while 75% say they’ve taken action after being inspired by a post. Plus, during the 2015 holiday season, nearly 1 in 5 purchases was on mobile, and it’s predicted that this year more than half of people who research travel online will do so on a mobile device.

Facebook expands dynamic ads to Instagram, which it bought in 2012. The social network is also rolling out new targeting tools.

Facebook Inc. today announced plans to bring its dynamic ads—the ad format that lets retailers and other advertisers serve shoppers ads based on the products they looked at on the merchant’s site or app—to Instagram, the increasingly influential social network it bought in 2012.

 Relevance is key in any marketing campaign, but as retail and ecommerce businesses look for better ways to connect with shoppers on mobile, there’s a huge opportunity to offer highly-relevant messages to the people who are browsing and shopping on websites and in mobile apps. To help marketers connect with shoppers in new places, today we’re extending a product to Instagram that many Facebook advertisers are already using with great success: Dynamic Ads.

What is the Dynamic Ads ?

Dynamic ads helps us connect our large product catalog to each unique shopper with relevant and timely product ads. Dynamic ads keep up to date with your business so you only show products that are in stock and at the latest price. And when a purchase is made on your site product ads are automatically turned off, across devices, so you’ll never bother your shoppers with products they’ve already purchased.

Facebook dynamic ads helps you promote relevant products to shoppers browsing your product catalog on your website or mobile app.
  • Scale: Promote all of your products with unique creative without having to configure each individual ad
  • Always-on: Set up your campaigns once and continually reach people with the right product at the right time
  • Cross-device: Reach people with ads on any device they use, regardless of their original touchpoint for your business
  • Highly relevant: Show people ads for products they are interested in order to increase their likelihood to purchase

Tips for successful Dynamic Ads:

  1. Visual: To Attract Audiences
  2. Constant Text: To Get your basic info across, what you do – where you are
  3. Dynamic information: Powered by Twitter or any web service to link with customers.


Tools for Retail and E-Commerce Marketers

Automatically promote relevant products from your entire catalog across any device.
Lead ads make mobile forms simple for people and more valuable for businesses.
More creative real estate in a single ad helps showcase your products and drive actions.
Remarket to people who have already visited your website to continue the conversation.
Use your business contact lists to find and target those same people on Facebook with cross- and up-sell messages.
Learn how conversion lift accurately captures the impact that Facebook ads have in driving business for marketers.
Increase brand awareness and drive people to purchase with Instagram’s end-to-end advertising solution.
Tell your brand’s story, drive awareness and increase purchase intent with sight, sound and motion.

Walmart to compete with the Seattle-based e-commerce giant in online shopping with a 30-day free trial



Wal-Mart, No 4 in the E-commerce  on U.S. Retailers. Today’s launch makes it an attractive alternative to Amazon Prime, which costs $99/year.

Wal-Mart Stores Inc. is hoping free shipping with two-day delivery will lure more shoppers to WalMart.com. Starting July 1, and in the following weeks, you’re going to see some amazing items at great prices kicking in.

Walmart launched ShippingPass last year as a means of competing with Amazon, though it was confined to a small number of cities across the country. It initially offered three-day shipping. In its latest attempt to square off with Amazon, Walmart is expanding ShippingPass, its unlimited two-day shipping program, and offering a free 30-day trial to all U.S. customers.

The ShippingPass pilot program launched last year and offers free shipping on all orders.

Walmart is also planning an Independence Day sale to coincide with the expanded ShippingPass offerings.

Order fresh groceries online with free same-day pickup and load your car.

Walmart wants to deliver groceries to your door and the grocery giant is getting some help from Uber and Lyft. Walmart will use Uber and Lyft driver for “last-mile” deliveries. When an online order comes through, Walmart employees will gather the products and a Uber or Lyft driver will complete the delivery, which will cost customers an extra $7 to $10.

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E-Commerce Market of 2016

The World’s Second Largest E-Commerce Market Rebounded Big Time in 2016.


E-commerce platforms are the lifeblood of retailers’ online sales success.

Today’s e-commerce platforms often incorporate technology that enables consumers to check real-time inventory counts across channels, track the status of their shipments, read product reviews and deliver streamlined navigation paths so they can quickly find the products they want.

Some platforms also enable retailers to coordinate marketing initiatives across online, mobile and, in the case of retail chains, store channels. Often, these are platforms that are hosted and accessed on the web, or cloud.

American e-retailers looking to grow by attracting new shoppers in a region where online retailing is growing faster than in the U.S.

Food & Beverage and Apparel are two of the fastest growing e-commerce segments. In these highly competitive industries, every actionable insight can be the difference between getting ahead or falling behind.


E-commerce has an edge in European retail sales

European e-commerce sales reached 455 billion euros last year (or more than $508 billion)—which makes Europe the second largest e-commerce market behind China. Trends vary by country, but the biggest web merchants in the region, or those ranked in the new Europe 500, grew online sales by 16.8%–faster than the growth in total European e-commerce sales, not to mention web sales in the U.S. (which grew 14.6% last year).

Salesforce to acquire e-commerce software provider Demandware

Salesforce will introduce a new e-commerce offering to go with its customer relationship management software.

Salesforce, the high-flying provider of cloud-based customer history software, announced today plans to acquire Demandware Inc., the leading cloud-based e-commerce technology provider to larger consumer goods brands and retailers.

Salesforce says the combination will provide Demandware clients with access to Salesforce marketing, analytics, sales and service technology, enabling them to provide consumers with more personalized service.

Saleforce is ranked as the No. 3 North American provider of cloud technology by Forrester Research, with projected 2016 revenue from its cloud service of $7.6 billion.



Solar Power from Sun and Rain

Chinese scientists develop solar panels that work in sun & rain

Scientists in China are developing revolutionary solar cells that couldtrigger electricity from both the sun and rain.

The scientists Qunwei Tang, Xiaopeng Wang, Peizhi Yang, Benlin He from Ocean University of China in Qingdao and Yunnan Normal University in Kunming developed a highly efficient and flexible dye-sensitized solar cell and then coated that cell with a one atom-thick layer of electron-enriched graphene. Dr Qunwei Tang is a full professor of Materials Science at Ocean University of China. His research is focused on dye-sensitized solar cell and electrode materials for advanced energy conversion devices.


The bi-triggered solar cell was assembled on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by coating a TiO2 anode layer with thickness of around 10 mm, sensitizing with 0.5 mm N719 dye, and an ITO-PET supported Pt (Pt3Ni alloy) counter electrode (CE) for front irradiation and Co(Ni)0.85Se CE for rear irradiation. Subsequently the redox electrolyte having I ¢ /I3 ¢ couples was injected into the interspace between a TiO2 anode and a CE and the solar cell was sealed under hot press.



Figure 1



The final solar cell architectures that can be excited by sunlight and rain are shown in Figure 1 and the Supporting Information, Figure S1.





Graphene layer could allow solar cells to generate power when it rains.

This phenomenon inspired researchers working with Qunwei Tang to use graphene electrodes to obtain power from the impact of raindrops. Raindrops are not pure water. They contain salts that dissociate into positive and negative ions. The positively charged ions, including sodium, calcium, and ammonium ions, can bind to the graphene surface.


Graphene is a two-dimensional form of carbon in which the atoms are bonded into a honeycomb arrangement. It can be prepared by the oxidation, exfoliation and subsequent reduction of graphite. The material conducts electricity and is rich in electrons that can move freely across the entire layer (delocalized). In aqueous solution, graphene can bind positively charged ions with its electrons (Lewis acid-base interaction), a property used in graphene-based processes to remove lead ions and organic dyes from solutions.

The solar cell can be excited by incidental light on sunny days and raindrops on rainy days, yielding a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 6.53% under AM 1.5 irradiation and current over microamps, as well as a voltage of hundreds of microvolts by simulated raindrops.

Note: New Renewable Energy Generator Grabs Electricity from Rain as well.


E-Commerce Reaches a Tipping Point


For the first time ever, e-retailers in the U.S. accounted for more than 10% of all retail sales, and America’s biggest and best e-commerce players grew their domestic web sales last year by 14.5%—nearly five times faster than store sales.  Internet Retailer’s all-new 2016 Top 500 Guide® ranks America’s 500 largest e-retailers based on 2015 online sales and reveals how America’s e-commerce market is changing dramatically and in ways that will impact the strategies of all e-retailers.

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There are a number of factors contributing to the growth, including Google Inc.’s increased push to drive consumers to click on ads instead of natural search results, consumers increasingly using their mobile devices to search, which is forcing retailers to devote more ad dollars to mobile search ads, and a more competitive e-commerce landscape that’s resulting in more players bidding on the same key-words.



As more consumers use their smartphones to shop, retailers are also increasingly turning to image-focused Products Listing Ads, which explains why spending on PLAs on Google more than tripled year over year, according to digital marketing firm Merkle. Advertisers vying for smartphone users’ attention helped drive the cost per thousand impressions, or CPM, up 57 % on Cyber Monday and 51 % on the day before Thanksgiving, which were the most dramatic smartphone display ads increases during the quarter.


The Amazon factor: The company has grown exponentially, it has become a dominant force in the retail world, and it continues to expand the reach of its universe. America’s e-retail leader keeps growing its market share. What impact is the web’s number-one player having on the rest of the e-commerce world? Amazon, omnichannel retailers making use of stores fuel growth. Online marketplace data helps Amazon find products it can launch and sell under the AmazonBasics brand, much to the chagrin of other merchants. Not only is Amazon.com by far the largest U.S. retailer in terms of online sales, it’s also growing faster than e-commerce as a whole. And e-commerce is growing must faster than retail sales in stores.

The marketplaces factor: Amazon’s and other online marketplaces are giving thousands of smaller retailers a huge new competitive tool for growing their sales. Find out how these rapidly growing marketplaces are impacting online retail.

According to source Forrester, online sales will eclipse $ 530 billion by 2020. Retailers making better use of their stores to fulfill online orders will help fuel growth.

The chain stores: More than any prior year, the Top 500 shows which leading retail store chains are building world-class e-retailing arms and which have been paying dearly for failing to prioritize their online business.



Source: Forrester, Internet Retailer

The Amazon factor: America’s e-retail leader keeps growing its market share. What impact is the web’s number-one player having on the rest of the e-commerce world? Amazon, omnichannel retailers making use of stores fuel growth. Online marketplace data helps Amazon find products it can launch and sell under the AmazonBasics brand, much to the chagrin of other merchants. Not only is Amazon.com by far the largest U.S. retailer in terms of online sales, it’s also growing faster than e-commerce as a whole. And e-commerce is growing must faster than retail sales in stores.

The marketplaces factor: Amazon’s and other online marketplaces are giving thousands of smaller retailers a huge new competitive tool for growing their sales. Find out how these rapidly growing marketplaces are impacting online retail.



Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Internet Retailer, Amazon.com Inc

Retail Chains vs Web-Only:

In 2011, web sales of web-only e-retailers surpassed web sales by retail chains. The gap has continued to widen as the web sales of web-only retailers grow at a much faster rate than retail chains.


Source: Forrester, Internet Retailer


Smart City Challenge in the U.S. – 7 FINALISTS

SmarterCities1 Smart-City

The Smart City Challenge is a nationwide competition set to award the winning U.S. city a prize of $50 million through the Department of Transportation and its partners, for that city’s ideas to develop the connected city of the future and address the challenges that growing populations present to transportation infrastructure.

The race December 2015:

“The level of excitement and energy the Smart City Challenge has created around the country far exceeded our expectations,” said US transportation secretary Anthony Foxx. “After an overwhelming response – 78 cities joined last year total – we chose to select seven finalists instead of five because of their outstanding potential to transform the future of urban transportation.”

The winning city will receive intelligent traffic management technology from NXP, enabling real-time vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication.


Saturday, March 12th, U.S. Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx, joined by Barbara Bennett, President and COO of Paul G. Allen’s Vulcan Inc. and Rick Clemmer CEO of NXP Semiconductors, announced seven finalists for the U.S. Department of Transportation’s (USDOT) Smart City Challenge.



SmartCityChallengeFinalistsMap_0The Seven finalists are:

  • Austin, Texas
  • Columbus, Ohio
  • Denver, Colorado
  • Kansas City, Missouri
  • Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • Portland, Oregon
  • San Francisco, California

The USDOT has pledged up to $40 million (funding subject to future appropriations) to one city to help it define what it means to be a “Smart City “and become the country’s first city to fully integrate innovative technologies – self-driving cars, connected vehicles, and smart sensors – into their transportation network.

Smart City Challenge as a provider of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) technology. With this partnership, NXP, together with its partner Cohda Wireless, will provide the contest’s winning community with wireless technology that allows cars to securely exchange data, such as hazard warnings, over distances of more than a mile to prevent accidents and improve traffic flow.
When the challenge was issued in December 2015, the department’s launch partner, Paul Allen’s Vulcan, announced its intent to award up to $10m to the winning city to support electric vehicle deployment and other carbon emission reduction strategies.

Second phase of the competition:


The seven finalists:

  • Austin, Texas
  • Columbus, Ohio
  • Denver, Colorado
  • Kansas City, Missouri
  • Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
  • Portland, Oregon
  • San Francisco, California

The seven finalists will receive a $100,000 grant to develop their proposals. Whereas the first phase called for a high-level overview, the winning city will be selected based on their ability to think big, and provide a detailed roadmap on how they will integrate innovative technologies to prototype the future of transportation in their city. The department will work with each city to connect them with existing partnerships and support their final proposal with technical assistance.

Autodesk will provide InfraWorks 360 and finalists will get access to and training on the modelling platform, which uses 3D visualisations and real-world data to plan major engineering projects.

The technology also allows cars to ‘talk’ to traffic lights and give priority to emergency vehicles, truck platoons, buses or other priority means of transport. RoadLINK additionally protects against illegal attacks with NXP’s V2X hardware security technology.


Why Ohio is the Win Key for both Republicans and Democratics


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Ohio, a key general election swing state, is among about two dozen states that allow so-called threshold voters to cast primary ballots to increase turnout among young adults. Ohio’s law was passed in 1981, but its meaning is now in dispute.

Ohio is one of the biggest prizes, for both the Democrats and the Republicans. Gov. John Kasich has long pinned his White House hopes on winning his home state, where he’s now virtually tied in the polls with Donald Trump. And though polls show Hillary Clinton ahead of Bernie Sanders in Ohio, Sanders is gunning for another upset like the one he pulled off in Michigan last week.

On the Democratic side there are blue-collar workers, young people and African-Americans. On the Republican side, there are suburban, rural and suburban women voters.

The reason Ohio is so important is that it is a very diverse state. It’s that traditionally it’s been a good microcosm of the country as a whole. No state is a perfect mirror but Ohio comes very close. Religion, race, age, economic diversity, you get a very good mirror. When the U.S. is divided politically, that division tends to run right through Ohio. No state can claim to have been as defining in presidential races as Ohio. At minimum, it now looms as especially critical in the GOP race. Either Gov. John Kasich wins, and offers the possibility of a contest and even a contested convention, or the GOP campaign may be done.

But it’s important to distinguish late 19th century and early 20th century, when most of the presidents from Ohio were elected. Between the Civil War and 1930s, the Republican Party was the dominant party and Ohio was at the center of Republican politics. That gave Ohioans a lot of influence.


After Democrats became dominant after the 1930s, it mattered but didn’t really produce presidents, even as it caused close elections. It didn’t have the same influence among the Democrats. Obama won twice and the Democrats had a top-notch organization, so they could compete with the traditional Republican organization. So if you’re looking forward to November, depending on the nominees, can the Democrats replicate Obama’s campaigns? If they can, they can carry Ohio. If they can’t, they may lose.

Ohio also tends to go with landslides, too, so it’s a good predicator. Over last 30 years or so, it’s always been a battleground state, and both parties can win so they contest it fiercely. It probably matters more to Republicans than Democrats. A Republican president is never elected without carrying Ohio.

What Tuesday’s contests could mean, though, is that Clinton will be forced to spend significantly more time fending off attacks from Sanders as opposed to positioning herself for the general election.Hillary Clinton had hoped Tuesday’s primaries in five states in the South and Midwest would cement her grip on the Democratic presidential nomination.

Mrs Clinton begins Tuesday with a comfortable lead ahead of her rival, Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders.

Opinion polls give her a big lead in Florida and North Carolina, but show Mr Sanders is gaining ground in the other three states.

Mr Sanders pulled off a major political upset with his win in Michigan a week ago.

Bernie Sanders upsets Hillary Clinton in Michigan ….

Instead, they’re expected to make clear the race will be a slog for many weeks.


Ohio is emerging as a key state for Republicans in next week’s big-state presidential primary contests, representing a make-or-break moment for home-state Gov. John Kasich and a key indicator of whether the GOP nomination battle will be extended or start winding down.

The two-term governor has bet his candidacy on winning at home and in states that come later in the primary contest, creating a new path to the White House.

The Republicans have a history of a very good party organization. That may matter on the margins in many elections since if an election is down to two or three points, organizations matter.

Winning Ohio is vital for Gov. Kasich not only because it is his home state, but because his allies in the state GOP last fall engineered a change of state party rules to make it a winner-take-all state. All 66 of its delegates will go to whoever places first.

If it is Gov. Kasich, he would more than double his delegate count, from the 54 he has won in the 24 nominating contests to date, leaving the governor in a distant fourth place behind Trump, with 458 delegates, Sen. Ted Cruz, with 359, and Sen. Rubio, who has 151.

Trump then proceeded to attack Gov. Kasich’s polling numbers during his speech. Mr. Borges made his way to where reporters were working and, during  Trump’s remarks, offered real-time rebuttal.

But polls show Trump either ahead or within striking distance in all five states — and a clean sweep could make it next to impossible for any of his rivals, even Cruz, to catch his delegate number by the convention. f he wins them all, Republicans will be down to a last hope of somehow denying Trump the delegates he needs and driving the race into Cleveland in a contested convention.

Senator Mr Rubio, currently in third place for the Republican Party nomination, has said he must win in Florida, his home state, in order to stop Mr Trump from “hijacking” his party’s nomination, but polls show Mr Trump is slightly ahead. However, he is trailing Mr Kasich in Ohio, where the fourth-place candidate for the nomination is governor.

Victories for any of Mr Trump’s rivals – Ted Cruz, Marco Rubio, or John Kasich – in this round of primaries would give hope to the Republicans fighting to block him. But polls have given Mr Trump a healthy showing in all five mainland states.

Click here, 2016 Primary Election Results & Calendar

Renewable Energy Sources

Low Carbon Technologies

Renewable Energy "Hydrokinetic"

Renewable Energy “Hydrokinetic”

Any transition has obviously not got everybody benefiting in equal amounts.

The renewable energy industry is expanding to meet the needs of a large and growing global market for clean and secure energy. This growth is likely to continue, with electricity production from non-hydro renewable energy sources expected to grow more than eight-fold from 2009 to 2035, if countries implement their existing commitments, and draw nearly US$3 trillion in investment. In this globalized industry, no single country has a monopoly on the supply chain or the opportunities to benefit from this expansion.

While environmentalists and many politicians argue the overall transformation will be positive for economies and jobs, millions of workers will face severe consequences.
According to a relatively optimistic forecast of emissions cuts by the International Energy Agency, fossil fuels will still account for about 75 percent of energy demand in 2030, with coal hitting a plateau, oil growing slightly and natural gas surging.

Coal companies will be especially hard-hit. The Stowe Global Coal Index, which tracks the stock performance of 26 major producers, has lost 59 percent of its value this year. It’s the start of a shift of “many trillions of dollars toward low-carbon technologies and away from old fossil-fuel technologies,”

To reduce the chemical industry’s direct carbon footprint, hydrogen can be generated via renewable energy and carbon dioxide use, which enables the production of various chemicals including methanol, methane and ammonia. Producing chemicals from waste and biomass also offers lower-carbon opportunities.

In nearly every country, it is politically very difficult to pursue one of these goals to the exclusion of the other. There is little political patience with using public resources to support a highly import-dependent clean energy deployment strategy, while raising energy costs, including to support domestic manufacturing or subsidize technologies, is equally politically challenging.

North America’s Energy Innovation:

U.S. energy demand while addressing the trade-offs that occur during the transition to a new energy system.

  • Promote energy efficiency and other measures that contribute to both energy security and climate goals.
  • Reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from technologies that contribute to energy security (coal and biofuels) and make low-carbon technologies (nuclear power and some renewables) more secure.
  • Support domestic conventional oil production during the transition to lower-carbon fuels.
  • Develop a natural gas strategy to help meet short-term demand and ensure the availability of alternatives in the longer term.

The U.S. Congress agreed on a bill that would see the solar Investment Tax Credit (ITC) extended by an additional five years, as part of a $1.15 trillion spending bill. The House is expected to vote on the legislation. Although sudden opposition could block immediate approval of the full bill, it looks close to certain that the ITC extension will go ahead.

In addition to an extension of the solar ITC, production tax credits for wind installations will also be introduced, in return for a removal of a 40-year long ban on oil exports from the United States.

According to IHS‘s Analysis, prior to the extension of the ITC forecast that U.S. solar installations would reach nearly 17 gigawatts (GWdc) in 2016 driven by the rush from developers to finish projects ahead of the December deadline. This would then lead to a drop to just 6.5 GW in 2017. The impact on the global solar industry would have been huge. IHS previously predicted global installations would peak at 70 GW in 2016 – a 20 percent increase over 2015 and largely driven by the huge demand from the United States; however, the cliff-edge in demand facing the country at the end of 2016 would have led to a global decline of 10 percent in 2017, with installations falling back to 63 GW.


Renewable Energy "Geothermal"

Renewable Energy “Geothermal”

Japan meets with Low-Carbon Technology transfer partners programs

Japan would provide low-carbon technologies to developing nations and use the reductions gained toward its own target of reduced gas emissions.

Noting that eight carbon-cutting projects are underway as part of the mechanism, Environment Minister Tamayo Marukawa said in her remarks that Japan intends to “further support” setting up projects.

Japan has so far agreed with Mongolia, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Vietnam and 12 other countries to implement projects under the framework. Of them, Saudi Arabia, Chile, Myanmar and Thailand joined the effort this year.

Development of organic inorganic hybrid high performance solar cells

High efficiency solution-printable photovoltaic cells with organic inorganic hybrid structures represented by organo metal halide perovskite crystals are developed by implementing strong harvesting power for the solar photonic spectrum and maximizing photovoltage to more than 1V. With the goal of power conversion efficiency toward 20%, cell fabrication method based on wet processes is designed so that the manufacture cost is minimized to 1/10 those of existing organic thin film solar cells.

Organic solar cells based on semiconducting polymers, “plastic” solar cells, are expected to be a technology with low-cost and low-enviromental impact. In this project, we will create new high-performance semiconducting polymers by controlling their electronic and ordering structures, and aim at the energy converion efficiency of 15% which has not been achieved for “plastic” solar cells.

Low Carbon Technologies for verification and technology to be compared:

CO2 emissions originating from energy consumption in house holds and tertiary industries accounts for about one thirds of Japan’s total CO2 emissions. More over, measures to reduce electricity consumption in the housing and buildings sector are an urgent agenda together with counter-measures against tight electricity power supply in the aftermath of the Great Earthquake in East Japan.

Among other things, measures for lightning energy reduction in houses and buildings are important and have major positive effects. This is because lightning, the consumption of electricity in lightning represents a large part of the total electricity consumption of buildings and the reduction of electricity consumption in lightning with its heat generation control effects leads to reduction of electricity consumption for air-conditioning. Viewed in this light, it can be rightly said that what is needed is a comprehensive lightning electricity consumption reduction strategy by means of an innovative and imaginative system covering light source, peripheral devices & equipment and lightning method.

The target technologies for verification shall have the objective of “energy consumption reduction required for materializing the lightning environment to be sought in daily operations or daily life ” , which are the following technologies:

Technology installed around light source, which enables the ratio of the luminous light shed from the light source reaching the object of lightning to be increased or enables illuminance distribution to be adjusted, by enabling the luminous light shed from light source to be effectively and efficiently reflected.
Technology installed around the light source, which enables illuminance distribution to be adjusted, by enabling the luminous light to be effectively and efficiently diffused.
Table: Target technology for verification and technology to be compared
Technology Reference case (Reference) Technology to be compared (Before) Target technology for verification (After)
Reflector fluorescent light conceived as light source 【Figure】Light source(the lower luminous light alone measured by ensuring the condition of a reflection rate of 0%
Light source(the lower luminous light alone measured by ensuring the condition of a reflection rate of 0%
【Figure】light source+conventional type reflector
light source+conventional type reflector
【Figure】ight source+high efficiency reflector
light source+high efficiency reflector
(mainly LED conceived as light source)
【Figure】light source( no diffuser installed and only the lower luminous light measured)
light source( no diffuser installed and only the lower luminous light measured)
【Figure】light source+ conventional type diffuser
light source+ conventional type diffuser
【Figure】light source +high efficiency diffuser
light source +high efficiency diffuser

EU Action:

According to European Commission  Climate Action. They are reinventing  carbon intensive infrastructures is critical if  they are to meet the EU and global climate change objectives. Achieving emissions cuts of 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050 requires a process of “decarbonizing” the economy. For this to materialize new and innovative low-carbon technologies will have to be developed and deployed.

New and innovative low carbon technologies help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and create new employment and growth. Europe is a leading player in the area of low carbon technologies and we are maintaining our leading position with a range of policy initiatives.

In July 2014, under the second decision, €1 billion in funding was awarded to 19 pioneering projects including the first example of a large-scale carbon capture and storage project in the EU.

Other EU initiatives in support of low carbon technologies, are:


Low-carbon technologies have been introduced, adapted, deployed, and diffused in three greenhouse gas-intensive sectors in China:

  • supercritical/ultrasupercritical (SC/USC) coal-fired power generation technology
  • onshore wind energy technology;
  • and blast furnace top gas recovery turbine (TRT) technology in the steel sector.

China has accelerated its low-carbon technology deployment in recent decades, making the transition from technology importer to major manufacturer of a number of low-carbon technologies. China’s experience highlights the important role of effective domestic policy in stimulating low-carbon technology. While the government took different approaches for each of the three technologies mentioned above.

China’s ambitious localization process for low-carbon technology has raised concerns about intellectual property rights (IPR) within some foreign governments and among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) companies.

Sustainable Economy

Sustainable Economy

Sustainable Economy

Sustainable Economy

Case Studies:

The Solar PV and wind industries in China, Germany, India, Japan, and the United States and provides a historical cross-country analysis, drawing from individual country cases, which aims to:

  • Determine which policies have been introduced to support the broader value chain—research and development(R&D), manufacturing, installation, and power generation—of the solar PV and wind industries in each country;
  • Track the trends in industry development in terms of size, installed capacity, jobs created (where available), and equipment prices (where available); and
  • Analyze how countries are finding success in both creating a healthy domestic industry and delivering low-cost, domestic clean energy.